1. Introduction diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy the body uses to sustain life.
A. types of diabetes
1. Diabetes type I diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
diabetes or juvenile diabetes)
a. Diabetes mellitus type I (type 1 DM) is caused by destruction of insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ located near the stomach that produces insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body's cells to take in the glucose they need. Without insulin, the glucose stays in the blood instead of going into cells. Glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in diabetes.
B. This type accounts for about 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.
c. Treatment of type 1 diabetes involves carefully calculated diet, exercise, home blood glucose test several times a day, and multiple daily injections of insulin to replace the insulin-the hormone of the pancreas no longer makes.
2. Diabetes type II diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
diabetes [NIDDM] or adult-onset diabetes)
a. Type P diabetes of the 2nd type) occurs when (1) the body does not produce enough insulin, a hormone, and/or (2) the cells ignore the insulin and not to use it to help bring glucose into cells.
B. This type is the most common form of diabetes. Onset of symptoms in diabetes of the 2nd type is more gradual and less severe, representing, as a rule, after the age of 40 years.
c. Treatment of type 2 diabetes includes diet, exercise, home glucose testing, Oral medication and/or insulin. About 40% of people with type 2 diabetes require insulin injections.
3. Gestational Diabetes
a. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy in women who have never had diabetes before pregnancy. Gestational diabetes begins when a woman's body is not able to make and use all of insulin is needed for pregnancy. This type of diabetes usually disappears when the pregnancy.
B. This type affects about 4% of all pregnant women, about 135,000 cases in the United States each year.
c. People at risk for gestational diabetes include women, 25 years or older who were overweight before pregnancy; have a family history of diabetes; and Hispanics, African Americans, native Americans, Asian Americans or Pacific islanders.
B. children and adolescents with diabetes
1. Researchers from Columbia University reported the largest study to date, from 6 to 18 years of age, persons with diabetes and 350 persons of the same age without diabetes.
2. Children and adolescents with diabetes, showed significantly more periodontal than those without diabetes. Children and adolescents with diabetes, had large losses investments than those without diabetes.
3. Based on these findings, children with diabetes should be screened for signs of periodontal disease and receive early intervention and prevention .