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Genetic Disorders


A genetic disorder is a disease caused by the absence of a Gene or products of the defective Gene. Genetic diseases are transmitted from one generation to another, but not necessarily appear in every generation.

A. family and cyclic neutropenia

1. Hereditary and congenital diseases that affect the bone marrow, resulting in abnormally low levels of neutrophils (PMNs) in the blood.

2. Persons with cyclic neutropenia may have serious periodontal lesions. Periodontal symptoms of the disease appear at a young age [5].

B. Down Syndrome

1. In common birth defects caused by an error in cell division that leads additional third chromosome 21 and presents mild and moderate mental retardation and related medical problems.

2. People with down syndrome often develop severe, aggressive periodontitis. Significant plaque biofilm formation, deep periodontal pockets, and extensive inflammation of the gums characterize periodontal down syndrome (box 17-6).

C. leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) syndromes

1. A hereditary disorder in which there is a defective chemotaxis blood. It is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and poor wound healing.

2. Cases of periodontal disease attributed to fret rare. Periodontal disease begins with the primary dentition with rapid loss of investments and early loss of teeth [10].

D. Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome

1. A hereditary disease characterized hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles of the feet and heavy defeat of periodontal tissues.

2. Periodontitis results in loss of bone and peeling teeth. Milk teeth lost 5 or 6 years. Permanent teeth erupt, but lost due to the destruction of the bones. To 15 years most people, with a toothless.

E. Chediak-HigasM Syndrome. A rare hereditary disease of the immune and the nervous system is characterized by a light-colored hair, eyes and skin. Impairment of neutrophil chemotaxis is a symptom of the disease. Aggressive periodontal disease has been described in patients with this disease.

Genetic disorder fabry disease

F. Glycogen Storage Disease

1. One of the 14 recognized diseases that interfere with the storage of carbohydrates in the form of glycogen in the body, characterized neutropenia.

2. Periodontal symptoms of the disease appear at a young age with the potential for early loss of teeth [11].

C. Infantile genetic agranulocytosis (Kostmann syndrome)

1. In rare hereditary forms of severe chronic neutropenia usually detected shortly after birth.

2. Persons with infantile genetic agranulocytosis experience severe periodontal disease [12].

H. Cohen Syndrome

1. A hereditary disease that affects many parts of the body and is characterized neutropenia, developmental delay, mental retardation, small head size, and weak muscle tone. 2. Persons Cohen syndrome increased susceptibility to early periodontal breakdown, which is likely to be associated with neutropenia [13].

I. syndrome, Ehlers dunloe (IV types and USH)

1. Heritable disorders of connective tissue easy bruising, joint pain (loose joints), sagging skin, and the weakness of the tissues.

2. Early generalized periodontitis is one of the most significant oral manifestations of the syndrome. This can lead to premature loss of milk and permanent teeth [14-16].

J. Hypophosphatasia

1. Genetic metabolic disorders of bone tissue mineralization caused by a deficiency in alkaline phosphatase in serum and tissues; characterized by defects of the skeleton-like rickets.

2. Periodontal symptoms include severe loss of alveolar bone and premature loss of milk and permanent teeth in the absence of inflammatory responses. In early peeling, which particularly affects the front teeth. Children with hypophosphatasia at risk of complications during oral teenage and adult life [17]. ..

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