INFLAMMATORY BIOCHEMICAL MEDIATORS
When pathogenic bacteria
successfully infect periodontal, the body reacts mobilization of protective immune cells and releasing a number of biochemical mediators to combat them. Immune cells release of biologically active compounds called biochemical mediators, which activate the body's inflammatory response
. Biochemical mediators "intermediaries" sent to the site for cell activation of the inflammatory response. Inflammatory mediators importance of periodontitis
are cytokines, prostaglandins, and matrix metalloproteinases (table. 9-1).
1. Cytokines. Cytokines are a powerful regulatory proteins are allocated by immune cells that affect the behavior of other cells. Cytokine (literally "protein") is a molecule that transmits information or signals from one cell to another. When he came on the host cells, cytokines signal immune system to send additional phagocytic cells at the site of infection.
A. sources of cytokines. Many different cell types, including PMNs, macrophages,
B-lymphocytes, cells, gingival fibroblasts, and osteoblasts to produce cytokines in response to micro-organisms or tissue damage.
B. functions of cytokines
1. Recruit cells, such as PMNs and macrophages at the site of infection.
2. The increase in vascular permeability, allowing the immune cells and additions to the transition in the tissues at the site of infection.
3. There is the potential to start the destruction of tissue and bone loss in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis.
4. Cytokines, which play an important role in periodontitis include interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (Il-6), interleikina-8 (silt-8)and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) .
2. Prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are a series of powerful biochemical mediators, which prostaglandins, D, E, F, G, H and I are the most biologically important. Prostaglandins from E-series (PGE) play an important role in bone destruction seen in periodontitis.
A. sources of prostaglandins. Most cells can produce prostaglandins, but PMNs and macrophages are particularly important sources. The main source of PGE in inflammatory periodontal tissues is macrophages, although PMNs and gingival fibroblasts also produce them.
B. functions of prostaglandins
1. To increase the permeability and fragility of the blood vessels that lead to redness and swelling of the connective tissue.
2. The trigger of osteoclastic bone takes cells to destroy the alveolar bone.
3. To promote overproduction destructive MMP enzymes.
4. Prostaglandins to initiate most of the alveolar bone destruction in periodontitis.
3. Matrix Metalloproteinases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of at least 12 different enzymes produced by different cells. These enzymes can act together to break down the connective tissue matrix.
A. sources of Small HPP. PMNs, macrophages, gingival fibroblasts, and paroxizmalnaya form of epithelial cells produce Small HPP. PMNs and gingival fibroblasts are the main source of Small HPP in periodontitis.
B. functions MSEs.
1. SHPP " effects in health. In normal, healthy conditions, mobile substation to facilitate the normal turnover of connective tissues of parodentium matrix.
2. SHPP " effects in chronic infection and inflammation
a. In the presence of chronic bacterial infection, a large number of Small HPP are produced in an attempt to kill the invading bacteria.
B. This is the overproduction of MSEs results in the breakdown of connective tissues of parodentium.
c. In the presence of increased MMP levels, a wide is the destruction of collagen in periodontal tissues. Collagen provides the structural basis of all the periodontal tissues. Without collagen in the tissues of the gums, periodontal ligament that supports the alveolar bone is destroyed, resulting recession gingival pocket formation and mobility of teeth.