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Case 1

The patient in a car accident receives penetrating wound with participation of the oral cavity. The wound gets on alveolar mucosa near the top of the lower premolar teeth and extends from the surface all the way through the mucous tissue of the premolar of the tooth root. The list of periodontal tissues, most likely injured by this penetrating wound.

The gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum

Gums, periodontal ligament, cement and alveolar bone form the tissues surrounding the teeth, and join them to the alveolar bone. Each of periodontal tissue plays a vital role in the functioning and retention of teeth. Gum provides a seal tissue around the cervix, the part of the teeth and covers the alveolar ridge.

Lymphatic system and the periodontium

The lymphatic system is a network of lymph nodes are connected lymphatic vessels, which plays an important role in protecting the body from infection. Lymph nodes (pronounced: limf nodes are small bean-shaped structures that are located on both sides of the head, neck, underarms, and groin. These nodes filter and trap bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other unwanted substances safely eliminate them from the body.

Blood supply to the periodontium

Vessels of periodontal anastomose (together)to create a comprehensive system of blood vessels that supply blood to the tissues of parodentium.

This network of blood vessels acts as a unit, supplying blood to the soft and solid tissues of the upper jaw and lower jaw. This distribution of this rich blood supply gums, account for the dramatic color changes that are visible in gingivitis.

Nerve supply to the periodontium

Innervation periodontium and nerve supply of periodontal tissues occurs through the branches of the trigeminal nerve (Fig. 1-20). Innervation of the jaw (Fig. 1-21) on the second branch of the trigeminal nerve (maxillary nerve) and lower jaw in the third Department (mandibular nerve).

Alveolar bone

Alveolar process or alveolar bone in the bone of the upper or lower jaw, which surrounds and supports the roots of the teeth (Fig. 1-15). Alveolar bone mineral connective tissue and is composed by weight of about 60% inorganic material, 25% inorganic material, and about 15% of water. The existence of the alveolar bone is dependent on the availability of teeth, after a tooth extraction, in time, alveolar bone dissolves. If the teeth are not erupt, the alveolar bone is not developing.

Root cementum

Cement is a thin layer of solid, mineralized connective tissue that covers the surface of the tooth root (Fig. 1-14).
  • Cement is applied and is attached to the root dentine. It has a light yellow color and softer or enamel, dentin.
  • Cement is bonelike tissue, which is more resistant to resorption of the bone [6].

Periodontal ligament

Periodontal ligament layer soft connective tissue that covers the root of the tooth and attaches it to the bone tissue of the tooth socket (Fig. 1-13). Periodontal ligament consists mostly of dense fibrous connective tissue [3]. Fiber periodontal ligament be attached on one side to the root of cement, and on the other side of the alveolar bone tooth socket [5].

Gingival Sulcus

The gingival sulcus is the space between the free gum and tooth surface (Fig. 1-12).

Groove is V-shaped, shallow space around the tooth [3].

Interdental Gingiva

Interdental gum is a part of the gums that fills interdental opening between two adjacent teeth to the apical zone of contact (Fig. 1-10).

Interdental gums consists of two interdental papillae-one facial papilla and one language papilla (papilla = nouns; papillae = noun in the plural).

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