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Radiographic Appearance of the Periodontium

Dental x-rays are an important addition to the clinical assessment of the periodontium. To recognize the disease, dental hygienist must be able to recognize normal radiographic appearance of the periodontium. Periodontal anatomy visible on x-rays includes the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament space, and cement.

Gum is noncalcified soft tissues that are not visible on the picture.

Clinical Features that Require Calculations

Certain judgments that are being implemented within the framework of clinical periodontal evaluation requires some calculations. The most common are the Width of attached gingiva and affection.

1. Defines the width of attached gingiva

A. Description. On attached gingiva is part gum, hard, dense, and is closely linked with cement on cervical-third of the root or the periosteum (the connective tissue cover) alveolar bone. On attached gingiva lies between the free gum and mucous alveolar, stretching from the base of the groove (or pocket) mucogingival junction.

Presence of Plaque Biofilm on the Teeth

1. The presence of plaque biofilm on the teeth should be noted in the comprehensive periodontal evaluation, as these fields contain living periodontal pathogens that can cause as gingivitis and periodontitis.

2. Plaque biofilm on deposits which can be identified with a disclosure dyes or by moving the tip explorer or periodontal probe along the surface of the tooth, adjacent to the gingival margin.

Presence of Calculus Deposits on the Teeth

1. The presence of plaque on the teeth should be noted, since these funds should be determined and removed as part of a non-surgical treatment.

2. Calculus is a local factor, as gingivitis and periodontitis; thus, identification and removal of these deposits is a critical component of successful treatment of the patient.

Furcation Involvement

1. In the splitting of the probe is used to assess the fork on the part multirooted tooth. Most molars multi-roots, but some of the maxillary premolar also develop with two roots to build capacity for the fork on the part of some premolars.

2. Fork probes, curved, blunt end tools that allows you to easily reach the junction areas.

3. The split occurs on multi-root tooth when periodontal infection penetrates into the area between and around the roots, which leads to loss of attachment and loss of alveolar process between the roots of the tooth.

Tooth Mobility and Fremitus

1. Horizontal mobility of the teeth, tooth movement in the face to the language direction is determined by the capture of the tooth between the two dental instrument handle.

a. AC mild pressure is applied to the face languages direction against the tooth first with one, then the other processing tool.

B. Mobility can be observed by using the adjacent tooth like a fixed point of reference in the process of trying to move a tooth is considered.

Level of Mucogingival Junction

1. The level mucogingival the interface represents the interface between keratinized gingiva and nonkeratinized mucosa. The level mucogingival junction is used to define the width of attached gingiva, as will be described in Chapter four.

2. In mucogingival junction usually clearly visible, so keratinized gingiva usually pale pink and opaque surface of the mucous membrane of thin, translucent fabric (Fig. 19-5).

Level of the Free Gingival Margin

1. The level of free gingival margin in relation to cementoenamel junction (FAC) should be recorded on a dental Chart. This level may simply be painted on the face and lingual surfaces of the dental Chart.

2. Several possible relationships exist between the free gingival and FAC:

a. Free gingival margin may be slightly coronal (above) FAC. This is a natural level of the gingival margin and represents the expected position of the gingival margin in the absence of disease or injury.

The Comprehensive Periodontal Assessment

Comprehensive periodontal evaluation of intensive clinical periodontal evaluation used to collect information about periodontal. This section describes the clinical features that should be noted and documented in a comprehensive periodontal evaluation. It is important to note that special precautions are necessary when considering dental implants. These survey methods, which are not discussed in this Chapter, because they are presented in Chapter 33.

Comprehensive periodontal evaluation usually involves clinical features, such as the sounding depth measurement, bleeding on probing, the presence of exudate, the level of free gingival and mucogingival junction, tooth mobility, fork participation, presence of Tartar and plaque biofilm, gingivitis, radiological data, loss of alveolar bone, and the presence of local factors.


1. Clinical periodontal evaluation of fact-gathering process designed to ensure the full picture of the patient's periodontal health.

A. the importance of evaluation of parodont

1. This assessment is one of the most important tasks dental team.

a. The dental team should perform and document periodontal evaluation for all patients when they first met with the team, and later on a periodic basis.

B. This assessment requires special attention to detail, since successful treatment of the patient strongly depends on a thorough and accurate periodontal evaluation.

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