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1. The clinical picture of healthy gums

A. color: pink, can be pigmented and elastic consistency.

B. Gingival

1. The timing circuit

2. Hotel coronal (above) cementoenamel junction (FAC).

C. Interdental papillae: the company and hold the breach of spaces to the apical region of the contact.

D. no bleeding: no bleeding when probing.

E. Furrow: probing the depths ranging from 1 to 3 mm

2. Microscopic picture of healthy gums (Fig. 3-5)

A. paroxizmalnaya form epithelium: JE firmly attached to hemidesmosomes enamel slightly coronal (above) cementoenamel junction (FAC).

B. Epithelial-connective tissue junction: in health, paroxizmalnaya form epithelium no epithelial ranges.

C. gums fibres: untouched supragingival fiber bundles support paroxizmalnaya form epithelium.

D. Alveolar bone: alveolar bone a whole and is 2 to 3 mm apical (see below) of the Foundation paroxizmalnaya form epithelium.

E. Periodontal ligament fibres: untouched periodontal ligament and fiber bundles stretch between the bone wall of the tooth socket cement root.

F. cement: cement-this is normal.

Healthy periodontium..

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