Gum is a part of the mucous membrane that surrounds the cervical part of the tooth and covers the alveolar process
of the jaws (Fig. 1-3,1-4).
- In the end coronal to cementoenamel junction (FAC) of each tooth and attached to the tooth using a specialized type of epithelial tissue (paroxizmalnaya form epithelium).
- It consists of a thin outer layer of the epithelium and the base of connective tissue.
- Gum is divided into four anatomical areas (Fig. 1-3).
- Free gum
- The gingival sulcus
- Interdental gums
- Attached gingiva
Gums protects base supporting structures of the tooth periodontal from the oral environment. In the oral environment is subjected to a wide range of temperatures in food and drink, mechanical strength, and a large number of bacteria in the mouth. To perform these functions, gums has several defense mechanisms, including saliva and protection mechanisms of the immune system.
- Coronal the turn of the gum - gum edges (Fig. 1-5).
- Apical the turn of the gums is the mucic of alveolar process. Alveolar mucosa can be easily distinguished from gum to her dark red color and smooth, shiny surface.
- Free gum shallow grooves linear depression, which separates the free and attached gingiva (Fig. 1-5). This line can be clinically visible, but not obvious, in many cases.
- In mucogingival transition is clinically visible border, where attached gingiva of pink corresponds to red, shiny mucic of alveolar bone (Fig. 1-5). Clinically visible means that this target can be seen in the oral cavity.