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The Influence of Diet and Nutrition on the Periodontium

Evidence did not specify the exact relationship between diet, nutrition and diseases of parodont at this point. Much of the scientific data related to food and periodontal diseases includes animal and laboratory studies with some limited data from controlled clinical studies. Despite this limitation, the study makes reference to some specific nutrients and foods with a high content of refined carbohydrates to increase inflammation is very kind of inflammation, which can cause the host-mediated inflammatory response seen of periodontal disease [1]. As discussed in several chapters of this book, periodontal disease is an inflammatory response to bacterial plaque biofilm. Although periodontal cannot be caused by nutritional deficiencies, some nutrient really seem to change the severity and prevalence of periodontal disease.

1. The lack of nutrients that may increase the risk of periodontal disease. There do appear to be certain dietary factors that may increase the risk of periodontal disease.

When considering the relationship between nutritional deficiencies and periodontal diseases, it is important to understand that certain disadvantages may be the result of impaired absorption, restrictions in the sphere of education, or geographic isolation, and also simply be the result of poor diet.

A. vitamin D and calcium. Diet deficient in calcium and vitamin D may play role in the increased risk of periodontal disease.

1. Vitamin D (a group of steroid hormones) have an important impact in the regulation of calcium in the plasma.

2. In addition to the regulatory body levels of calcium, vitamin D plays a role in host defense against infection and activates macrophages to react and to kill pathogens [2].

3. In a large epidemiological study, the risk of loss of investment was increased in patients with low content of calcium in food; to reduce the consumption of more losses investments [3].

4. Another interesting longitudinal study of older people with higher daily calcium intake had a lower risk of tooth loss, than adults who consume lower calcium levels [4].

5. Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies reported in the loss of bone mass and increase inflammation [5].

6. Vitamin D is found in some foods, but mostly produced within the skin in response to sunlight; a good source of dietary vitamin D : egg yolk, liver and fatty fish.

7. In one study, the consumption of calcium-rich dairy products (especially yogurt and fermented beverages is associated with periodontal health Smoking [6].

B. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

1. Vitamin C deficiency is well studied and was associated with changes in periodontal [7]. 2. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that can not accumulate in the body, with the exception of small quantities.

3. Since the human body lacks the ability generalization and elaboration of vitamin C, it depends on dietary sources to meet vitamin C needs.

4. Vitamin C is found in fresh fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, berries, tomatoes, greens, and KIWI; the consumption of fruit and vegetables, or the enrichment of the diet with vitamin C supplements are necessary to avoid deficiency of ascorbic acid.

5. Research conducted in the Netherlands, a group of Indonesian tea garden workers have found a small but statistically significant correlation between loss of investment and vitamin deficiency [8].

6. Epidemiology studies conducted in the USA, with the participation of more than 12 000 adults showed a weak link between the reduction of vitamin C from food and the presence of periodontal disease [9].

7. Prolonged and severe deficiency of vitamin C can lead to scurvy.

a. Scurvy is a systemic disease caused by a severe and prolonged deprivation of vitamin C, and scurvy can be accompanied by changes in the periodontium.

B. Systematically scurvy results in poor wound healing, progressive anemia, muscle pain, internal bleeding, and many other symptoms; scurvy in early childhood can cause problems of locomotor system.

c. In periodontal scurvy can lead to excessive swelling and bleeding of the gums, the destruction of the periodontal ligament and death alveolar bone, tooth mobility, and tooth loss.

d. Although scurvy is rare in the United States and Canada, it still occurs in these countries and can affect both adults and children, chronic vitamin deficiency [10].

8. Ascorbic acid-deficiency inflammatory response of the gums caused by plaque biofilm that is exacerbated by the persistently low vitamin C (ascorbic acid) levels.

a. Ascorbic acid-deficiency gingivitis is manifested clinically bright red, swollen, ulcerated gingival tissue that bleeds with the slightest provocation [11,12].

B. An example of infant vitamin C deficiency shown in figures 21-1 and 21-2.

Role of diet in periodontal disease ..

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