Genetic Risk Factors For Periodontitis
Periodontitis is widely recognized as a complex disease. As noted in other sections of this tutorial, it is clear that fundamentally periodontal disease is a bacterial infection; numerous studies, even certain bacteria that are associated with the development of different types of periodontitis. For many years, however, clinical observations that acute periodontal disease can occur in subsequent generations some families led to speculation about the potential role of genetic factors in periodontitis
. Research has begun to clarify the true role of genetics as a risk factor in this complex disease.
1. The role of genetics in periodontitis
A. genetics and overall health
1. Many diseases are caused by a combination of both environmental factors and genetic factors.
2. Periodontitis, "environmental factors" may indicate the presence of periodontal disease-causing bacteria in plaque biofilm on the tooth surface and genetic factors are related to the inherited characteristics, such as certain genes in cells.
3. Genes can have a dramatic effect on the body by defining specific characteristics of proteins that are needed by the cells to live and function normally.
4. It is well known that today genes in the cell nucleus have a huge impact on the majority of our characteristics.
5. Mutations or variations in these genes can lead to certain diseases, and sometimes these diseases may even affect the periodontium.
B. rare genetic syndromes associated with Periodontitis
1. There are a few rare genetic disease that in addition to the creation of several medical problems for patients may also lead to a very unusual form of parodontitis.
2. Examples of some of these rare disorders include conditions such as Chediak-Higashi syndrome, down syndrome, leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, working syndrome, Papillon-Lefevre syndrome, Crohn's disease, acute monocytic leukemia, and cyclic and chronic neutropenia.
a. Many of these rare diseases are accompanied PMN malfunction, making patients more susceptible to infection, such as periodontitis.
B. Fleredity anomalies in the PMT function can cause an overflow systemic bacterial infection and are often associated with increased susceptibility to severe periodontal lesions.
c. Of dental hygienists is unlikely to encounter patients with most of these severe genetic diseases outside the hospital dentistry environment.
3. These rare genetic syndromes were studied to help clarify the role of genetics and of periodontal disease, but most of these studies are not very helpful for the Clinician to the understanding of the relationship between genetics and the more common forms of periodontal disease, such as chronic or aggressive periodontitis.
C. genetics and chronic Periodontitis
1. Chronic periodontitis is the most common form of periodontal disease, and genetic research related to chronic periodontitis were mainly focused on studies of twins.
2. Studies are difficult to interpret, but from these studies of twins is that about 50% of chronic periodontitis susceptibility may indeed be due to genetic factors.
3. Genetic risk factor of chronic periodontitis is difficult, and there seems to be no specific gene mutations associated with the disease.
4. There is a probability that the genetic risk of developing chronic periodontitis is additive effect of several genes.
D. genetics and aggressive periodontitis is not associated with a specific syndromes
1. Aggressive periodontitis is a relatively rare disease, and genetic studies of this condition was difficult to conduct because of its rarity.
2. Genetic studies associated with aggressive periodontitis indicate that most likely will be different genetic forms of aggressive periodontitis, but specific genes that have not yet been identified in the course of these diseases.