Non-absorbable Sutures Silk
Silk is a multifilament braided suture with a high standard moisture regain: the "wick effect". This results in plaque formation within a few hours after insertion into the tissues.
Silk is strong, available in a variety of lengths, easy to use and knot, easily identified even when buried in swollen tissues, cost-effective, rarely allergenic, and available in sizes from 0-0 to 6-0. Although it is still the most widely used suture material overall, its sole advantage is ease of use and it is not recommended for endodontic microsurgery
Nylon monofilament (polyamide polymer): Ethilon, Supramid
These non-absorbable suture materials are inert, strong, with a smooth non-porous surface that makes them impenetrable to bacteria.
Some monofilaments, up to 6-0, are difficult to tie and have a tendency to cut through tissue when pulled during placement or mouth movement, or when tension increases as the tissues swell. This problem, along with the hard, sharp, highly irritating and uncomfortable cut ends, can be considered a disadvantage. Monofilaments of size 7-0 or more are smooth enough and do not suffer these problems.
Polyester (polyethylene polymer): Mersilene, Ethibond
This is a non-absorbable braided polyester multifiber that is uniformly coated with polybutilate that acts as a lubricant to mechanically refine its physical properties and improve ease of passage through tissues. Its cut end elicits minimal tissue reaction.
Polypropylene (polypropylene polymer): Prolene
Polypropylene is an isotactical crystalline stereoisomer of a linear hydrocarbonate polymer that does not allow any saturation.
Teflon is an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) suture. The carbon fluoride bond is one of the strongest bonds of all organic compounds and makes GoreTex one of the most inert substances known. It is strong and easy to use; and because of its smooth non-porous surface, debris and bacteria are unable to accumulate on its surface. It is available in sizes 4-0, 6-0 and 9-0 as well as CV-4, CV-5 and CV-6 needle shapes.