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Transverse Force, Lever Arm, and Bending Moment

During chewing, forces are generated on the prosthesis. If a chewing force is acting along the axis of an implant (axial force), the stress will be evenly distributed through the implant cross-section and the fixture threads.

Practical Guidelines Based on Biomechanical Principles

In any structure subjected to functional loads, there may be situations leading to overload and subsequent complications. Implant treatment defines a structure based on both biological tissue (bone) and mechanical components (implant and superstructure). Overload in this biomechanical edition where chewing forces exert a repeated bending of a part of this structure leading to marginal bone loss and/or component failure.

Biology and Pathology of Peri-implant Soft Tissues

Teeth are anatomically unique because they are the only structures of the body that penetrate a lining or covering epithelium. Thus, teeth and dental implants are two isolated examples of structures that pierce the integument. While proper anchorage of an implant in the bone (osseo-integration) is a prerequisite for its stability, long-term retention of an implant seems to depend on the epithelial and connective tissue attachment to the titanium surface, ie, a complete soft tissue seal protecting the bone from the oral environment.
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