Novel carbohydrates and dental caries risk
Industrial production of polymers of glucose and oligosaccharides, glucose, fructose, and galactose, and their use in food products is growing. Information about dental health effects of these carbohydrates therefore of importance. Polymers of glucose and non-digestible possible fermentable carbohydrates, however, products containing them may be marked as sugar-free (e.g. some chewing? Without sugar, vitamin tablets contain fructooligsaccharides).
Glucose syrups and maltodextrins called glucose polymers and are produced by acid hydrolysis of starch. They vary in composition and contain a mixture of mono -, di -, tri -, Tetra -, Penta -, hexa -, hepta-saccharides and alpha, the limit dextrins (short branched-chain sugars). The degree of complexity is expressed as dextrose equivalent (DE); less complex polymers of glucose, the higher the DE. Glucose syrups that DE 20 or more, while maltodextrins are more complex and have DE-less than 20. Glucose polymers are virtually tasteless and odorless and is used to increase the energy intensity of various food products.
They are often added to baby food and drinks, sports drinks, desserts, pastries, and energy supplements for use in clinical nutrition.
Glucose polymers contain traces of mono -, di -, and trisaccharides that can be metabolized by the plaque micro-organisms. In addition, the salivary amylase may hydrolysis longer glyco-sidic chain, maltose and glucose. The degree of hydrolysis by amylase will be determined by the retention time in the oral cavity. Thus, glucose polymers have the potential to cause tooth decay, but the evidence is thin. Most data were obtained from the animal, the Board pH and laboratory studies in vitro.
Glucose syrup, solutions were found less cariogenic than sucrose solutions; however, adding a solid component rat diet, no difference in the development of caries was shown between rats fed glucose syrups and rats treated with sucrose. People, replacing sucrose with glucose syrups result in markedly reduced plaque points, but the number of RAID is currently not necessarily related to the development of caries. Glucose syrups present on site lactose, soya milk, raising concern about the implications of such milk infant caries. Plaque pH studies show no significant difference in the acidogenic potential between soy infant formula and standard for breastfeeding. However, a plaque pH studies do not consider lower content of protective factors in soy milk and extended the time during which children may need to stay on this formula.
In maltodextrin solution (10%) has been shown to lower plaque pH but less than 10% sucrose solution. In the absence of evidence from clinical trials, recommendations for the use of polymers of glucose should be the same as for the rest of the milk external sugars. To protect the health of teeth, it is desirable that, if consumed between meals, maltodextrins only added to foods and beverages that have been deleted from the mouth quickly.
There is an increasing interest in the synthesis of new oligosaccharides (e.g. prebiotics), and in isolation transgluco-sylase enzymes that allow their production, not only for economic reasons, but also due to the potential health benefits. Many synthetic oligosaccharides are resistant to digestion and pass into the large intestine, where they stimulate the growth of bifidus bacteria, which are known to reduce the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. So they can protect from diseases of the intestines. Many species of bacteria in the colon are also present in dental plaque (e.g. bifido-and lactobacteria), and, therefore, dental health effect of these novel carbohydrate, is important.