Home · Foundations of Periodontics · HORMONAL VARIATIONS · Hormonal influence on periodontium


The level of sex hormones vary in different periods of life, most clearly in puberty, pregnancy and menopause. Some studies show that changes in hormone levels can affect the periodontium, in particular, in the presence of existing ones, the plaque-induced inflammation of the gums.

1. Puberty, pregnancy, menopause

A. Puberty. During puberty, there is an increased level of estradiol in women and testosterone in males.

1. Increase of the level of sex hormones during puberty cause increased blood supply to the gum tissue and may cause increased sensitivity to local irritation, such as bacterial plaque biofilm, resulting in pubertal gingivitis.

2. The relationship between (1) in serum testosterone, estrogen and progesterone, and (2) in proportion Prevotella InterMedia,

P. nigrescens and Capnocytophaga species were seen in puberty, gingivitis. These organisms have been implicated in the increased bleeding and inflammation of the gums observed in puberty [20-22].

3. Pubertal gingivitis occurs equally in girls and boys. The trend towards plaque-induced inflammation of the gums decreases as young people are going through puberty.

4. Dental hygienist must explain the importance of careful plaque biofilm control and its role in the prevention of plaque-induced inflammation of the gums during puberty.

5. The American dental Association (ADA) recommends the use of antimicrobial solutions for rinsing of the mouth, antibiotic therapy and aggressive treatment of periodontal for any severe cases of puberty gingivitis.

B. Menstruation

1. Usually menstrual cycle does not cause any changes in the gums.

2. Women with existing gingivitis experience to increase inflammation and crevicular fluid, the fluid during menstruation, when compared with the control with a healthy periodontal [23].

3. Gum disease seems to be compounded by an imbalance or increase sexual hormones. Numerous studies have shown that sex hormones change action on cells of the immune system.

4. When the progesterone level is the highest before menstruation, intra-oral aphthous ulcers, herpes lesions, and candidiasis occurs in some women, as the cyclical nature of this process [24]. ..

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