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Lichen Planus

A. Characteristics Of Diseases

1. Red flat herpes is a disease of the skin and mucous membranes, in which there is itching, swelling, rash on the skin or in the mouth. Both the skin and mucous membranes, can be affected, however, oral participation or affecting the skin alone is common. The exact cause planus is unknown. However, this is likely due to the allergic or immune response.

2. Red flat herpes is the most common mucocutaneous diseases affecting the gums.

3. Red flat herpes of the mouth can affect people of any age, although it is rarely seen in children [19].

4. The first episode of oral planus may last several weeks or months. Unfortunately, the red flat zoster mouth, usually a chronic condition, and can last for many years.

B. Clinical Manifestations

1. Oral manifestations include intensive redness of the gums (Fig. 14-14).

2. Sores on the gums may be associated with pain.

3. Alternating of white lines (Wickham stretch marks) may be present tissues of the mucous membrane of the mouth and gums.

4. Raised white lesions may be present as a separate papules or plaque-like configurations.

Lichen planus pathogenesis

5. Erythema Multiforme

A. Characteristics Of Diseases

1. Erythema is a disease of the skin and mucous membranes due to allergic reaction or infection. Large, symmetric red spots resembling target, there are more and more skin in a circular pattern.

2. On mucous membranes; it begins as bubbles, and progresses to ulcers. Oral involvement occurs in 25% to 60% of cases, and sometimes only participates site [20].

3. The exact cause is unknown even can cause allergic reactions.

B. Clinical Manifestations

1. Oral manifestations include swollen lips often with great crust formation.

2. Lesions on the gums to attract bullae that the gap and leave ulcer (Fig. 14-15).

6. Allergic Reactions. Allergic reactions can occur on ingredients in toothpaste, mouthwash, or chewing gum [21]. These reactions are usually the result of flavorings or preservatives in foods. Flavor additives known to cause gum reaction cinnamon and carvone [22].

A. allergic reactions

1. Allergic reactions occur most often in patients who have a history of allergic diseases such as hay fever, allergic skin rashes, or asthma. 2. Patients with allergies, apparently, the most sensitive to the natural identical flavoring. The most secret part of the wording toothpastes and mouthwashes-flavouring, and this is usually the most allergenic ingredients.

B. Clinical Manifestations. Clinical manifestations of Allergy are diffuse fire red gingivitis sometimes with ulcerations (Fig. 14-16).

C. recognition and treatment of allergic reactions 1. The hygienist may suspect that the problem of the patient with good plaque biofilm control that were previously healthy gums (especially if the patient has a history of Allergy). Check if the patient is using a new tooth paste or liquid for rinsing of the mouth or chewing gum.

2. Advise the patient to change brands of toothpaste or a liquid for rinsing a mouth. Termination of allergen-containing toothpaste or liquid for rinsing a mouth should lead to the solution of gingivitis.

3. If necessary, the diagnosis of allergic reaction can be confirmed by biopsy with a diagnosis of plasma cells, gingivitis.

4. When the manufacturer becomes aware of allergic reactions, flavour identical to natural or additives that cause problems usually changes. For this reason, sometimes the patient may return to the original product (after 6 to 12 months) and use it without problems. ..

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