Characteristics of Osteoporosis
1. Osteoporosis-reduction of bone mass, leading to an increased risk of fractures. Osteoporosis occurs most often in postmenopausal women in a sitting or lying ill animals, and also patients receiving long-term steroid therapy.
2. Osteopenia is a condition in which there is a decrease in bone density, but not necessarily increase the risk of morbidity or destruction. Osteopenia is common in people older than 50 years who have less than the average density of bone tissue, but do not have osteoporosis.
3. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disease caused by the cessation of the production of estrogen and is characterized by bone fractures.
B. Morbidity. Osteoporosis affects more than 20 million men and women in the United States and the results of almost 2 million fractures annually.
2. Osteoporosis and the risk of developing periodontal disease
A. the link between Osteoporosis and bone loss alveolar
1. There may be a link between skeletal osteoporosis and alveolar bone loss in the jaw.
Preliminary studies report significant correlations between the mineral density of bone tissue of the lower jaw and hip mineral density of bone tissue .
2. In itself, osteoporosis does not initiate periodontitis. Loss of bone density alveolar process, however, may exacerbate bone resorption seen in earlier periodontitis.
B. Postmenopausal osteoporosis and bone loss alveolar
1. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and low level of education are more likely presence of periodontal disease than those without osteoporosis [16,17].
2. Deficient absorption of dietary calcium and increased excretion of calcium due to diminished estrogen levels in postmenopausal women can account for some bone changes, usually involving the mandible more than the maxilla .
3. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) associated with a decrease inflammation of the gums and reduce the frequency of clinical attachment loss in osteopenic/osteoporotic women in early menopause .