Introduction to Smoking and Periodontal Disease
Epidemiological research, clinical trials and animal studies consistently indicate that periodontal disease is multifactorial etiology. Specific risk factors change the sensitivity of the receiving periodontal infection and affect the severity of the disease. In the last 30 years, there is a growing understanding of the role of tobacco severity of periodontal disease. It seems that Smoking can be one of the most significant risk factors in the development and progression of periodontal disease
. (Fig. 11-1).
In the United States, approximately 25% of adults smoke cigarettes.
In the canadian tobacco monitoring results for 2001, 22% of the population aged 15 years and older identified themselves as smokers.
1. Smoking increases the risk of serious diseases of parodont
A. increased risk of periodontal disease
1. A significant number of large-scale studies to Establish that Smoking increases the risk of serious diseases of parodont at 2.6 to 6 times [1-14].
2. In the United States adult population, by 41.9% of periodontitis cases, due to current cigarette Smoking and 10.9% to former Smoking.
3. More than half of periodontal disease cases among adults in the United States, associated with Smoking, it is important to understand its impact on the initiation and progression of the disease in patients who smoke.
4. A large part of chronic periodontitis can be prevented through the prevention and cessation of Smoking.
B. the impact of Smoking on the Periodontium
1. A large number of studies to Establish, that in comparison Smoking and non-Smoking women with periodontal diseases in smokers
a. More loss of investment and more recession gingival [9,15,16]
B. More alveolar bone loss [6,8,18-21]
c. Deeper probing the depths and more deep pockets [6,8,17-20]
d. More teeth with a fork part [23,24]
e. More tooth loss [25,26]
2. More of cigarettes smoked and the longer a person smoked, the more serious attachment loss (Fig. 11-1 and 11-2) .
3. For strongly associated with aggressive destruction of parodont at a young age. Smoking tobacco can play an important role in the development of forms of periodontal disease who do not respond to treatment, despite the excellent patient and proper treatment of periodontal .