1. The effects of Smoking on the Periodontium
. There were several publications in periodontal literature specially to solve the problems of the impact of Smoking on the periodontium
, most likely because of the common problems in motivation to quit Smoking. Most studies on the effect of Smoking on the periodontal
were either cross-sectional study of periodontal status in current smokers, former smokers and non-smokers or a prospective cohort study.
A. the effect of Smoking cessation on the state of parodontium
1. Current smokers are usually much worse periodontal conditions (greater depth, more loss of investment, and alveolar bone loss)than any never smokers or former smokers.
2. In General, the periodontal health of former smokers is not as good as never smoked, but it's better than smokers [10,74,75].
3. These results show that although the past and the influence of Smoking on the periodontal cannot be undone, stopping Smoking is beneficial to periodontal health .
4. The American Academy of Periodontology strongly recommends that you enable the cessation of tobacco use counseling is an integral part of periodontal therapy.
B. the effect of Smoking cessation on the results of treatment of parodontium
1. Studies have confirmed that the treatment results in former smokers are generally similar to those that may be expected that never smokers, but are generally better than those that can be expected in current smokers .
2. Benefits of Smoking cessation of periodontal tissue, probably the result of
(1) reduction of pathogenic bacteria in subgingival plaque biofilm, (2) improvement of blood circulation in the gums, and (3) improving the host's immune and inflammatory response.