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Risk Factors for Periodontal Disease


Risk factors are factors that can change or increase the likelihood of development of periodontal disease. The main established risk factors of periodontal disease are specific bacterial pathogens, Smoking, diabetes mellitus.

1. Local and acquired risk factors

A. Plaque Biofilm

1. She was known for many years that periodontal disease is a bacterial infection. The presence of bacteria needed for periodontal disease occur.

2. Recent epidemiological studies have investigated the specific role of specific bacteria as a risk factor for periodontal disease.

3. The consensus report of the 1996 world workshop in Periodontics defined three types, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia as causal factors, periodontitis.

4. Only about 50% of the bacteria in the mouth, which is now recognized [4]. Thus, these three types may not be considered as only periodontal pathogens, but it is only those for which sufficient data exist.

B. Local Mouth

1. Local factors for periodontal diseases of the oral cavity that increase an individual's susceptibility to periodontal infection in specific sites.

2. Examples of local factors include Tartar and faulty restorations.

C. Smoking Cigarettes 1. Numerous studies have established an Association for the poor periodontal health [5-12].

2. Data from the third national health and nutrition (NHANES III) studies show that 42% of cases of periodontitis in the United States, can be attributed to current Smoking, and 11% - for the former [12].

2. Systematic Risk Factors. Diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis [13-16]. There is enough evidence to support the link between poorly controlled diabetes and periodontal disease [17-19]. ..

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