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Periodontitis as a Risk Factor for Respiratory Disease

A. periodontitis and hospital-acquired pneumonia

1. Pneumonia is a serious inflammation of one or both lungs. This is caused by the inhalation of microorganisms and may range in severity from mild to life threatening. There are two types of pneumonia: community-acquired and nosocomial.

2. Community-acquired pneumonia, pneumonia contracted outside a hospital setting.

a. In most cases of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia caused by aspiration of oropharyngeal organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae [83].

Periodontitis as a Risk Factor for Diabetes Complications

A. introduction periodontal disease and complications of diabetes. Studies show that there is a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease.

1. First, it is clear that diabetes increases the risk and severity of periodontal disease [72,73]. The American diabetes Association, the standard of care 2008 includes obtaining history in the past and in the present tooth infection as part of a doctor's examination [74,75].

2. Secondly, can lead to an aggravation of periodontal disease diabetes significantly worsening glycemic control with time [76].

Periodontitis as a Risk Factor for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

A. introduction periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes

1. Adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with periodontal disease include miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia.

a. Premature births with low birth weight at birth babies is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and long-term development of the nervous system disorders and health problems in children.

Periodontitis as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

A. introduction periodontal disease and CVD

1. Statistics: Cardiovascular Diseases

a. Cardiovascular disease was 16.7 million, or 29.2% of the total mortality in the world according to World Health Report 2003. By 2010, CVD is the leading cause of death in developing countries [4].

B. According to estimates, 80,700,000 American adults (1 of 3) have one or more types of CVD. Of these, 38,200,000 estimated 60 and over [5].

Periodontitis and Systemic Disease

Scientific evidence emerging from the beginning of 1990th years suggests that there are two sides of the link between periodontal disease and systemic health. First, as already mentioned in Chapter 10, the presence of somatic diseases, which may increase the likelihood of disease initiation or severity of periodontitis. On the other hand, the presence of chronic infection Oral (periodontitis), can have a negative effect on individual health system.


1. Secondary occlusal trauma injuries occlusive forces applied to the tooth or teeth that have experienced loss of investment and/or loss of bone mass.

2. In this type of occlusal trauma periodontal was unhealthy to extreme occlusive forces (box 17-10).

3. Rapid loss of bone mass and pocket education may result in excessive occlusive forces act on a tooth that had previously been the attachment loss and/or loss of bone mass.


In mucogingival deformation is a significant change in morphology, size, and the relationship between the gums and alveolar mucosa that may lead to the underlying bone. The recession of the gingival margin is the most common mucogingival deformation and is characterized by the amount of gingival apical from cementoenamel junction (Fig. 17-15-17-18).


Tooth anatomical factors that predispose to plaque associated with gum disease, or periodontitis include tooth anatomical factors, such as cervical enamel forecasts and enamel, pearls, palatolingual grooves, or malocclusion (Fig. 17-11 and 17-12). Faulty dental restorations can cause plaque biofilm retention (Fig. 17-13 and 17-14) and can affect biological Width.

Etiology of NPD

A. Microorganisms. Necrotizing periodontal disease associated with Treponema species, Selenomonas species, and Fusobacterium species, and Bacteroi- des melaninogenicus ss. intermedius (Provotella intermedia).

B. Predisposing factors for NPD

1. Systemic diseases that reduce immunity, including HIV infection, leukemia, measles, chickenpox, tuberculosis, herpetic gingivostomatitis and malaria

2. Poor self-care (plaque biofilm control)

Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases

Necrotizing periodontal (NPD) include necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (contest) and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP). Today there is enough evidence to establish whether necrotizing ulcerative necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and periodontitis-two unique diseases or different stages of the same disease that progresses from the results of the contest on the stump. As long as the difference between necrotizing ulcerative necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and periodontitis can be clarified, the results of the competition and of the tap are classified together under the category of necrotizing periodontal disease. Both the results of the competition and tap relating to reduce systemic resistance to bacterial infection.

1. Necrotizing periodontal (NPD) is an inflammatory and destructive infection of periodontal tissues, including tissue necrosis (localized tissue death). Both the results of the competition and tap painful infections, sores, swelling, and excessive off dead epithelial tissue of the gums.

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